A affective conflict icon

A affective conflict



НазваниеA affective conflict
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1. /Exam defenitions.docA affective conflict

A

Affective conflict – occurs when individuals become aware that their feelings & emotions are incompatible.

Affect displays – are kinesics behaviors that express emotion (crying, laughing).

Affective style – is a receiver oriented & process-oriented verbal personal style in which the listener is encouraged to sense the message before the speaker actually verbalizes it, i.e. that the burden of understanding the message is on the receiver & depends upon him.

Apartheid – is the segregated political system: a political system in South Africa from 1948 to the early 1990s that separated the different peoples living there and gave privileges to those of European origin.

Ascription - is the process by which others attribute identities to an individual, a statement that assigns or attributes something to somebody or something else; social status by birth: the social status derived from the circumstances into which somebody is born.

Assimilation – is the integration into group: the process in which one group takes on the cultural and other traits of a larger group; forcing the minority to adopt the values, norms & patterns of behavior, language & lifestyle of the major group.

Attribution – is the interpretation of the meaning of the other’s behavior based on one’s past experience or history.

Avoiding style of managing conflicts – reflects a low concern for the self & others. People, who use this style, attempt to withdraw, sidestep, deny, & bypass the conflict. In some cultures this style is used by both parties & may result in more harmonious relationships.

Avowal is the process by which an individual portrays him- or herself.

Active cultures – individuals try to change the environment to fit them. They are more competitive & action-oriented.

C

A conflict of interests – describes a situation in which people have incompatible preferences for a course of action or plan to pursue.

Cognitive conflict – describes a situation in which two or more people become aware that their thought processes or perceptions are incongruent.

Chronemics is the study of how the time affects communication.

Contextual style – is a role-oriented verbal personal style in which linguistic devices serve to emphasize the role identity.

Communication – is the process of sharing ideas, information, and messages with others in a particular time and place. Communication includes writing and talking, as well as nonverbal communication (such as facial expressions, body language, or gestures), visual communication (the use of images or pictures, such as painting, photography, video, or film), and electronic communication (telephone calls, electronic mail, cable television, or satellite broadcasts). Communication is a vital part of personal life.

Communication break-off – occurs when a native speaker & a non-native one feel that conversation they lead is not in their interests & the communication terminates.

Cultural relativism – means that there is no hierarchy of cultures.

Channel – is the physical means by which the message is translated. It may be face-to-face oral communication, letters, magazines, radio, phone, e-mail, TV-set. The preference of channel to be used for various types of communication differs from culture to culture.

Compromising style of managing conflicts – reflects a moderate disagree of concern for the self & others. This style involves sharing & exchanging information in such a way that both individuals give up something to find a mutually acceptable solution. Sometimes this style is less effective than the integrating approach because people feel forced to give up something they value & so have less commitment to the solution.

Constructive marginals – are those who thrive in their marginality. They see themselves as choice markers.

Culture is used culture to refer to a society or group in which many or all people live and think in the same ways. Likewise, any group of people who share a common culture—and in particular, common rules of behavior and a basic form of social organization—constitutes a society. Thus, the terms culture and society (the web of relationships and interactions among human beings) are somewhat interchangeable.

Culture shock – is a sudden exposure to unfamiliar culture: the feelings of confusion and anxiety experienced by somebody suddenly encountering an unfamiliar cultural environment.

Culture MLA – studies music, letters, arts of the country, i.e. the so-called best in human life.

Culture BBV – studies such basis as beliefs, behavior & values, everything in human life.

Collectivistic culture – the culture in which the collectivistic values are valued over those that are individual. To be independent in one’s thinking or actions would be considered selfish & rude.

D

Dominating style of managing conflicts – reflects high concern for both the self & a low concern for others. The behaviors associated with this style include loud & forceful expressiveness. Members of some cultural groups (e.g. west Europeans) consider this style counterproductive to conflict resolution. However, African Americans, for example, see this behavior appropriate in many contexts.

Direct style – is one in which verbal messages reveal the speaker’s true intentions, needs, wants & desires.

Decoding (=information processing) – is converting external energies to meaningful experience & attributary meaning to the source’s behavior.

Diffuse cultures – respond to the environment in a holistic manner. I don’t like your report MEANS I don’t like U.

E

Emblems – are body movements that can be translated into words & that are used intentionally to transmit a message, expressing or exemplify something abstract in bodily form.

Exact style is one that empathizes co-operative communication, the speaker is expected to give neither more nor less information than required.

Elaborate style – is one characterized by the use of rich expressive language in everyday conversation.

Emigration – is the act of leaving a place, especially a native country, to go and live elsewhere.

Expulsion - dismissal from a place or membership: the act of compelling somebody to leave or give up membership in some party or another institution, the forcing out of somebody from the place of living.

Extermination - to kill or destroy somebody or something completely especially belonging to the other cultures; occurs as a consequence of xenophobia.

Exoticism – is a specific form of xenophobia: an idealistic glorification of the foreign.

Ethnocentrism – is the conviction of own cultural superiority, a belief in or assumption of the superiority of the social or cultural group that a person belongs to. E is the tendency to interpret or to judge all other groups, their environments & their communication according to the categories & values of your own culture.

Encapsulated marginals – people who become trapped by their own marginality. They have difficulty in making decisions, are troubled by ambiguity & feel pressure of both groups they belong to. They feel disintegration in shift cultures & never feel at ease.

Encoding – is an internal activity in which a source creates a message through the selection of verbal & non-verbal symbols.

Expressive cultures – are cultures in which people enjoy social relationship more than business. e.g. Latin American culture.

F

Feminine cultures – cultures in which

Feedback – this is information to a source that allows him to make judgment about the effectiveness of the communicative of the communicative situation in order to adjust & adapt to the on-going situation.

G

Goal conflict – occurs when people disagree about preferred outcome or end state.

Genocide - murder of entire ethnic group: the systematic killing of all the people from a national, ethnic, or religious group, or an attempt to do this

Geographic cultures – are the nations, tribes, casts, religions, sects & other formations defined by geographic boundaries.

H

Haptics – is a non-verbal communication that involves touching. People touch while speaking.

Horizontal cultures – accept equality as given.

High-involvement style – is a culture/style where overlapping (interrupting) is considered to be a sign of rapprochement & even respect of the other speaker.

High-context culture – is the culture in which the meanings of common message are found in the situation & in the relationships of a communicators or are internalized in the communicators’ believes, values & norms (information shared through previous communications, through assumptions about each other, & through shared experiences). High-context culture is extremely polite & characterizes conversation in a high-context culture. One of the purposes of communication is to avoid threatening the face of one’s conversation partner thus bringing shame upon oneself; what’s not said may be more important than what is said. The information is not explicitly stated in the verbal message.

I

Illustrators – is a type of kinesics behavior that accompanies what is said verbally (gesturing, smiling).

Incomplete understanding – occurs when at least one of the participants understands that smth has gone wrong. The person may decide either to ignore or to correct the problem.

Indirect style – is the style in which verbal messages are often designed to camouflage the speaker’s true intentions, needs & wants.

Instrumental cultures – are cultures in which people are interested in getting the job done.

Instrumental style – is characterized as a gender-oriented verbal personal style & a goal-oriented as well, i.e. the burden to make the message clear is on the gender.

Intrapersonal communication is the communication with ourselves or self-talks. It involves dialogues we have with ourselves. We engage in self-talk to sort out feelings & ideas, plan our lives, IC refers different ways of acting & enhances our self-esteem.

Integration – occurs when the migrants have an interest in maintaining their original culture & also in maintaining daily interactions with other groups.

Integrating style of managing conflicts – reflects high concern for both the self & the other person & involves an open & direct exchange of information in an attempt to reach a solution that is acceptable to both parties in the conflict. This style is seen as most effective in most conflicts. It assumes collaboration, empathy, objectivity, recognition of feelings & creative solutions. However it requires a lot of time & energy.

Interpersonal communication – is communication between people; the most common form of daily communication is interpersonal—that is, face-to-face, at the same time and in the same place. The most basic form of interpersonal communication is a dyad (an encounter or conversation between two people). Some dyads exist over a long period of time, as in a marriage or partnership. Communicating well in a dyad requires good conversational skills. Communicators must know how to start and end the conversation, how to make themselves understood, how to respond to the partner's statements, how to be sensitive to their partner's concerns, how to take turns, and how to listen. Together, these abilities are called communication competence. Shyness or reluctance to interact is called communication apprehension. Persuasion is the process of convincing others that one's ideas or views are valuable or important. It exists in a continuum from highly impersonal to highly interpersonal. There are several subgroups within: group/team communication, public communication, organizational communication, performance communication.

Intercultural communication – refers to communication between people from different cultures including distinct cultures within a single country. [What’s new] is the systematic study of what happens when cross culture contact & interaction takes place.

Interracial communication – is the communication which takes place between the representatives of different races. It’s characterized by the fact that there are racially identifiable physical differences between the communicators.  The major difficulty encountered in interracial communication is an attitudinal problem associated with racial prejudice.

Interethnic communication – refers generally to situation when communicators are of the same race but of different ethnic origins & background.

International communication – is communication between nations & governments. It’s communication of diplomacy & propaganda, & frequently involves both intercultural & interracial situations.

Idioculture – is the sum total of features peculiar to the individual member of a given culture.

Individualistic culture – culture in which society is an artificial device, existing only for the sake of its members as individuals, and properly judged only according to criteria established by them as individuals. Individualists do not necessarily subscribe to the doctrine of egoism, which regards self-interest as the only logical human motivation.


K

Kinesics – is the study of communication and body language: the study of the ways in which people use body movements (such as shrugging or nodding) to communicate without speaking.

L

Loose cultures – have fewer rules & norms. In loose cultures people are tolerant of many deviations from normative behavior.

Low-involvement style – a culture in which overlapping is considered to be rude undesirable.

Low-context culture – is one in which the meanings of the message are stated clearly without depending upon the context of the communicative situation.

M

Marginalization – occurs when the individual or group expresses little interest in maintaining cultural ties with either the dominant culture or the migrant culture.

Monochronic culture – is characterized by the tendency to divide time into segments. People concentrate on one thing at a time. This culture values highly punctuality of completing tasks & keeping up to schedules.

Misunderstanding - lack of comprehension: a failure to understand or interpret something correctly; when it occurs the participants do not recognize that there is a problem.

Masculine cultures – are the cultures in which men are vied as assertive & prevail (predominate) over women, are oriented to material success & strong; women are vied as modest, focused on the quality of life & tender.

Message – is the result of encoding, it is a set of verbal &/or non-verbal symbols that represent a source of particular state of being at a particular moment in time & space.

N

Non-verbal communication - communication by other means than by using words, e.g. through facial expressions, hand gestures, and tone of voice; all types of communication that take place without words.

Noncommunication – occurs when a native speaker or a non-native one avoids communicating with the other person.

O

Organizational communication – is a communication in various aspects of work life such as interviewing, organizational structure (leadership), leadership, organizational culture & personal relationship in professional setting.

Obliging style of managing conflicts – describes the situation in which one person plays down the differences & incompatibilities & emphasizes commonalities that satisfy the concerns of the other person. This style may be most appropriate when a person is more concerned with the future of the relationship than with the issue.

P

Proxemics – is a NV communication that involves space; the study of personal space: the study of the distance individuals maintain between each other in social interaction and its significance.

Polychronic culture – conceptualizes the time as smth holistic, more circular.

Pragmalinguistic errors – are language specific errors that involve pragmatic force of an utterance having different meanings in two languages; may occur when speech strategies are inappropriately transferred from one language to another.

Personal style – individual centered verbal style in which linguistic devices are used to emphasize the “I-identity”.

Prejudice – an unfounded hatred, fear, or mistrust of a person or group, especially one of a particular religion, ethnicity, nationality, sexual preference, or social status, a preformed opinion, usually an unfavorable one, based on insufficient knowledge, irrational feelings, or inaccurate stereotypes (opinion formed beforehand).

Particularist cultures – are cultures in which people treat others on the basis of the qualities the person possesses (who he/she is).

Passive cultures – people change themselves to fit into the environment. They are more co-operative.

R

Regulator – is a kinesics behavior that controls turn-taking & other procedural aspect of interpersonal communication.

Resettlement - relocate population: to provide a group or population with a new place to live and transfer it there.

Role cultures – is our social position that offers us specialized communicative behavior.

S

Sociopragmatic errors – are those which occur when a communicator doesn’t perceive the situation or doesn’t categorize the other people involved in, according to the cultural norms they are using; misunderstanding of the cross-cultural differences in understanding of what is appropriate linguistic behavior.

Succinct style – expressed with brevity and clarity, with no wasted words, values understatement simple assertions & silence.

Style – is a matter of message that contextualizes how individuals should accept & interpret a verbal message.

Stereotype is categorizing individuals or groups according to an oversimplified standardized image or idea (maybe background experience), fixed set of ideas.

Segregation – is the enforced separation of groups: the practice of keeping ethnic, racial, religious, or gender groups separate, especially by enforcing the use of separate schools, transportation, housing, and other facilities, and usually discriminating against a minority group.

Specific culture – is one which discriminate different aspects of the stimulus complex I don’t like your report = I don’t like your report.

T

Tight cultures – have many rules, norms & ideas about what the correct behavior is in each situation.

U

Universalist culture – are cultures in which people try to treat the others on the basis of the universal criteria.

V

Value conflict – is a conflict when people differ in ideologies on specific issues e.g. religion, gender equality, euthanasia, abortion, child rearing, etc.

Vertical cultures – accept hierarchy as given. People are different from each other & hierarchy is a natural state. Those who are at the top naturally have more power & privileges than those at the bottom of hierarchy.

X

Xenophobia - fear of foreigners: an intense fear or dislike of foreign people, their customs and culture, or foreign things.





The difference in essay writing. Russians are more emotional, that’s why they use a lot of digressions in their essays. British take one thought, point out a few viewpoints & develop ‘em into the paragraphs.

British student

Russian student

Speaks to the point

Deviates

Speaks to the point

Develops the main idea



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